Loneliness Linked to Poor Sleep Quality among Young Adults

By Arthur Dominic J. Villasanta , | May 16, 2017

Alone.

Alone.

Yes, there is a link between loneliness and poor sleep quality, said a study of more than 2,000 British young adults by researchers from King's College London.

The study found that lonelier people were 24 per more likely to feel tired and have difficulty concentrating during the day.

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Loneliness is defined by researchers as a distressing feeling that people experience when they perceive their social relationships to be inadequate. This is distinct from the concept of social isolation since people can be socially isolated without feeling lonely, or feel lonely despite being surrounded by many people.

While the effect of being lonely is well documented among the elderly, it's also a common problem for young people, too. The Mental Health Foundation reports that loneliness is most frequent between the ages of 18-34.

Despite this, little is known about health problems that are associated with loneliness among young adults, or the impact on sleep.

Researchers from King's College London sampled data from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a cohort of 2,232 18-19 year-old twins born in England and Wales.

They measured loneliness by scoring responses to four questions: "How often do you feel that you lack companionship?", "How often do you feel left out?", "How often do you feel isolated from others?" and "How often do you feel alone?"

They also measured sleep quality in the past month, including the time it takes to fall asleep; sleep duration and sleep disturbances, as well as daytime dysfunction such as staying awake during the day.

Overall 25 percent to 30 percent of the sample reported feeling lonely sometimes, with a further five per cent reporting frequent feelings of loneliness.

Researchers found that the association between loneliness and sleep quality remained even after they accounted for symptoms of mental health problems such as depression and anxiety, which are commonly associated with sleep problems and feeling lonely.

One of the proposed reasons for restless sleep in lonely individuals is the possibility they feel less safe, so the researchers examined the impact of past exposure to violence, including crime, sexual abuse, child maltreatment and violent abuse by family members or peers.

The association between loneliness and poor sleep quality was almost 70 per cent stronger among those exposed to the most severe forms of violence. The study authors suggest a number of biological processes which may explain the association between loneliness and sleep quality, including a heightened biological stress response.

Previous research suggests that loneliness is associated with changes in circulating cortisol, indicating elevated activation of the stress response system. Physiological arousal resulting from this process may play a role in the disrupted sleep of lonely individuals.

"Diminished sleep quality is one of the many ways in which loneliness gets under the skin, and our findings underscore the importance of early therapeutic approaches to target the negative thoughts and perceptions that can make loneliness a vicious cycle," said Prof. Louise Arseneault from the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience at King's College.


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